Eight-node brick element with reduced integration (C3D8R)

The C3D8R element is a general purpose linear brick element, with reduced integration (1 integration point). The shape functions are the same as for the C3D8 element and can be found in [41]. The node numbering follows the convention of Figure 57 and the integration point is shown in Fig 59.

Figure 59: 1x1x1 integration point scheme in hexahedral elements

Due to the reduced integration, the locking phenomena observed in the C3D8 element do not show. However, the element exhibits other shortcomings: