Incompatible mode eight-node brick element (C3D8I)

The incompatible mode eight-node brick element is an improved version of the C3D8-element. In particular, shear locking is removed and volumetric locking is much reduced. This is obtained by supplementing the standard shape functions with so-called bubble functions, which have a zero value at all nodes and nonzero values in between. In CalculiX, the version detailed in [89] has been implemented. The C3D8I element should be used in all instances in which linear elements are subject to bending. Although the quality of the C3D8I element is far better than the C3D8 element, the best results are usually obtained with quadratic elements (C3D20 and C3D20R). The C3D8I element is not very good when subjected to torsion. Since the B31 element is expanded into a C3D8I element this also applies to the B31 element.