Pipe, Sudden Enlargement

Figure 112: Sudden Enlargement

A sudden enlargement (Figure 112) is characterized by head losses $ \Delta_1^2 F$ of the form:

$\displaystyle \Delta_1^2 F = \zeta \frac{\dot{m}^2}{2 g \rho^2 A_1^2 },$ (153)

where $ \zeta$ is a head loss coefficient depending on the ratio $ A_1/A_2$, $ \dot{m}$ is the mass flow, g is the gravity acceleration and $ \rho$ is the liquid density. $ A_1$ and $ A_2$ are the smaller and larger cross section, respectively. Notice that this formula is only valid for $ \dot{m} \ge 0$. For a reverse mass flow, the formulas for a pipe contraction have to be taken. Values for $ \zeta$ can be found in file “liquidpipe.f”.

The following constants have to be specified on the line beneath the *FLUID SECTION, TYPE=PIPE ENLARGEMENT card:

The gravity acceleration must be specified by a gravity type *DLOAD card defined for the elements at stake. The material characteristic $ \rho$ can be defined by a *DENSITY card.

Example files: centheat1, pipe.